[21][24][25] It should not be stored near combustible substances. Examples of such disasters are. At temperatures below around 300 °C, the decomposition mainly produces nitrous oxide and water: At higher temperatures, the following reaction predominates.[11]. Ammonium lactate is a moisturizer. 2. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3. Ammonium nitrate is an odourless material, which is usually granulated (if a fertiliser) and white in appearance. [27][28], Ammonium nitrate begins decomposition after melting, releasing NO x , HNO3, NH3 and H2O. [12] See § disasters for details. It has some military applications as well. It has a role as … But what is it and what is it used for? Its other major use is as a component of explosive mixtures used in mining, quarrying, and civil construction. Other uses include as a heat absorber in instant cold packs. Large stockpiles of the material can also be a major fire risk due to their supporting oxidation, a situation which can easily escalate to detonation. Therefore, it is important to store ammonium nitrate in a tightly sealed container. As a result, this phase transition and attending change of volume, with the practical consequence that ammonium nitrate formed as solid rocket motor propellant develops cracks. Ammonium nitrate, which is used in fertilizers and bomb making, is a salt made from ammonium and nitric acid, and it is highly explosive. It is a white crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium and nitrate. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4 NO3, and it's made by combining ammonia with nitric acid. Pure ammonium nitrate does not burn, but as a strong oxidizer, it supports and accelerates the combustion of organic (and some inorganic) material. Ammonium nitrate has the chemical formula NH₄NO₃. The chemical made the news again after a huge explosion in Beirut caused the death of 100 people and nearly 4,000 injuries. After the solution is formed, typically at about 83% concentration, the excess water is evaporated off to leave an ammonium nitrate (AN) content of 95% to 99.9% concentration (AN melt), depending on grade. The commercial grade contains about 33.5 percent nitrogen, all of which is in forms utilizable by plants; it is the most common nitrogenous component of artificial fertilizers. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula NH₄NO₃. Ammonium lactate is used to treat dry, scaly, itchy skin. Ammonium nitrate can absorb enough moisture to liquefy. * Ammonium nitrate is an industrial chemical commonly used in fertilisers and as an explosive for quarrying and mining. Numerous safety guidelines are available for storing and handling ammonium nitrate. When mixed with fuel oils, the chemical creates a potent explosive that is widely used in the construction industry. Properties: UNIDO and International Fertilizer Development Center (1998), This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 03:22. Using ammonium nitrate in gardens and large scale agricultural fields enhances plant growth and provides a ready supply of nitrogen from which plants can draw. Though the material itself is noncombustible it will accelerate the burning of combustible materials. Under certain conditions, this can lead to a runaway reaction, with the decomposition process becoming explosive. Ammonium nitrate is an ingredient in certain explosives. It works both as a fertiliz… An explosive charge within or in contact with a mass of ammonium nitrate causes the ammonium nitrate to detonate. Otherwise, it can coalesce into a large, solid mass. Determine the amount of fertilizer necessary using the soil test results as a guide. Ammonium nitrate is used in fertilizer and in the mining industry as an explosive to blast rock and move mounds of earth. A Cheaper Airbag, and Takata's Road to a Deadly Crisis. Since ammonium nitrate has nitrate in it already, plants get nitrogen from it a bit faster than if you apply urea. Due to these bans, "Potassium chlorate – the stuff that makes safety matches catch fire – has surpassed fertilizer as the explosive of choice for insurgents. [15] It is less concentrated than urea (46-0-0), giving ammonium nitrate a slight transportation disadvantage. These prills or granules are the typical AN products in commerce. Ammonium nitrate fertilizer is a simple compound to make. The chemical is applied in granule form into the soil and quickly dissolves under moisture, allowing nitrogen to be released. Calcium ammonium nitrate is an inorganic compound that is widely used as a fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate sold by ton as U.S. regulation is stymied. 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Both the β-rhombic to α-rhombic forms are potentially present at ambient temperature in many parts of the world but have a 3.6% difference in density. Ammonium nitrate is the “N” in N-P-K synthetic lawn fertilizer. If there is a significant amount of ammonium nitrate it can generate enough heat to catch fire and continue to burn eventually causing an explosion. Ammonium nitrate is predominantly used in agriculture as a fertiliser. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound used in agriculture as a fertilizer, to make pyrotechnics, as an ingredient in cold packs, and for science demonstrations. The ammonia required for this process is obtained by the Haber process from nitrogen and hydrogen. Ammonium nitrate is used in the high explosive ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil). “Ammonium nitrate is the ammonium salt of nitric acid. It has been reported that the cause of the explosion in the Lebanon capital was ammonium nitrate. Providing the correct amount of nutrients to your plants is crucial to their health and development. For example, in Australia, the Dangerous Goods Regulations came into effect in August 2005 to enforce licensing in dealing with such substances. It has been the cause of numerous industrial explosions over the last three decades, including the explosion at a chemical plant in Toulouse, France, in 2001 that killed 31 people. Detonation may occur at 80 atmospheres. Ammonium nitrate has an LD50 of 2217 mg/kg,[35] which for comparison is about two-thirds that of table salt. Both decomposition reactions are exothermic and their products are gas. Employees of those with licenses to deal with the substance are still required to be supervised by authorized personnel and are required to pass a security and national police check before a license may be granted. It was reported that 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate was stored in a warehouse for six years without safety measures. When plants dont have enough of a certain nutrient, pests, disease and low bearing are often the result. [31] Additional uses such as education and research purposes may also be considered, but individual use will not. Ammonium nitrate decomposes, non-explosively, into the gases nitrous oxide and water vapor when heated. Examples include the Oppau explosion of 1921 (one of the largest artificial non-nuclear explosions), the Texas City disaster of 1947, the 2015 Tianjin explosions in China, and the 2020 Beirut explosion.[37]. It should not be heated in a confined space. Ammonium nitrate is a common industrial chemical used mainly for fertiliser because it is a good source of nitrogen for plants. Agricultural use. Ammonium nitrate was also used to create the explosives used in the 2006 Mumbai train bombings. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound widely used in farming as fertilizer. Ammonia produced by the Haber process can be oxidized to nitric acid by the Ostwald process. Ammonium nitrate has also been used as an oxidizer in some solid fuel rockets and to help deploy airbags in cars. Ammonium nitrate is a crystal-like white solid which is made in large industrial quantities. [6] Accidental ammonium nitrate explosions have killed thousands of people since the early 20th century. The AN melt is then made into "prills" or small beads in a spray tower, or into granules by spraying and tumbling in a rotating drum. It is highly soluble in water and hygroscopic as a solid, although it does not form hydrates. A number of trials were carried out in the 1960s but the substance was not adopted by NASA. Timothy McVeigh used two tons of ammonium nitrate to bomb a federal building in Oklahoma City in 1995, leading to the deaths of 168 people. The prills or granules may be further dried, cooled, and then coated to prevent caking. Ammonium nitrate fertilizer is an industrially-produced chemical fertilizer.It has the chemical formula NH 4 NO 3 and is used primarily to increase the nitrogen content of soil. Another use of ammonium nitrate is in the food industry where it is used as a nutrient in producing antibiotics and yeast. Ammonium nitrate can explode through two mechanisms: InChI=1S/NO3.H3N/c2-1(3)4;/h;1H3/q-1;/p+1, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Production, reactions and crystalline phases, Ammonium Nitrate-Regulating its use, Balancing Access & Protection from, largest artificial non-nuclear explosions, "Ammonium nitrate production by country, 2019 - knoema.com". It accounts for about 4% of the total nitrogen-fertilizer utilization worldwide. Ammonium nitrate is predominantly used in agriculture as a fertiliser. Blending ammonium nitrate with certain other fertilizers can lower the critical relative humidity.[29]. For this reason, phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) which incorporates metal halides as stabilisers has been investigated.[14]. but virtually 100% of the chemical now used is synthetic. Ammonium nitrate can also be made via metathesis reactions: As ammonium nitrate is a salt, both the cation, NH4+, and the anion, NO3−, may take part in chemical reactions. It should not be stored near high explosives or blasting agents. Ammonium nitrate is a popular fertilizer since it provides half of the N in the nitrate form and half in the ammonium form. Ammonium nitrate and urea both contain the element nitrogen, but in different forms. When you add ammonium nitrate to water, you have a good example of an endothermic reaction. Ammonium nitrate-based explosives were used in the Sterling Hall bombing in Madison, Wisconsin, 1970, the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, the 2011 Delhi bombings, the 2011 bombing in Oslo, and the 2013 Hyderabad blasts. This type of fertilizer is typically sold in a granular form, although other preparations and combinations are possible. It is popular because it is a cheap and highly stable explosive. Ammonia is used in its anhydrous form (a gas) and the nitric acid is concentrated. Molten ammonium nitrate is very sensitive to shock and detonation, particularly if it becomes contaminated with incompatible materials such as combustibles, flammable liquids, acids, chlorates, chlorides, sulfur, metals, charcoal and sawdust. Ammonium nitrate liquid is the white crystals dissolved in water. It's also used to create controlled … Health and safety data are shown on the material safety data sheets, which are available from suppliers and can be found on the internet. What is calcium nitrate? Ammonium nitrate's advantage over urea is that it is more stable and does not rapidly lose nitrogen to the atmosphere. What is ammonium nitrate? The manufacture, conversion, bagging, import, export, transport, possession for sale or use of ammonium nitrate is covered under The Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012. [26][21], Contact with certain substances such as chlorates, mineral acids and metal sulfides, can lead to vigorous or even violent decomposition capable of igniting nearby combustible material or detonating. "[17], Ammonium nitrate is used in some instant cold packs, as its dissolution in water is highly endothermic. Ammonium nitrate is an important fertilizer with NPK rating 34-0-0 (34% nitrogen). The industrial production of ammonium nitrate entails the acid-base reaction of ammonia with nitric acid:[10]. However, it can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced in fires involving this material. The potential for use of the material as an explosive has prompted regulatory measures. It is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. The rules also make storage of ammonium nitrate in large quantities in populated areas illegal in India. In November 2009, the government of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan imposed a ban on ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilizers in the former Malakand Division – comprising the Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Swat, Chitral, and Malakand districts of the NWFP – following reports that those chemicals were used by militants to make explosives. Ammonium nitrate, (NH 4 NO 3), a salt of ammonia and nitric acid, used widely in fertilizers and explosives. Health and safety data are shown on the safety data sheets available from suppliers and from various governments.[21][22][23]. -Ammonium nitrate is an industrial chemical commonly used in fertilisers and as an explosive for quarrying and mining. It also was used, in combination with independently explosive "fuels" such as guanidine nitrate,[18][19] as a cheaper (but less stable) alternative to 5-aminotetrazole in the inflators of airbags manufactured by Takata Corporation, which were recalled as unsafe after killing 14 people.[20]. The red–orange colour in an explosion cloud is due to nitrogen dioxide, a secondary reaction product.[12]. Ammonium nitrate is found as the natural mineral gwihabaite (formerly known as nitrammite)[7] – the ammonium analogue of saltpetre (mineralogial name: niter)[8][9] – in the driest regions of the Atacama Desert in Chile, often as a crust on the ground or in conjunction with other nitrate, iodate, and halide minerals. [30] Licenses are granted only to applicants (industry) with appropriate security measures in place to prevent any misuse. But not all ammonium nitrate experiments end with a bang. [36] A number of crystalline phases of ammonium nitrate have been observed. Many countries are phasing out its use in consumer applications due to concerns over its potential for misuse. It is a white crystalline solid and is highly soluble in water. It is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. A solution of ammonium nitrate with nitric acid called Cavea-b showed promise for use in spacecraft as a more energetic alternative to the common monopropellant hydrazine. Produced as small porous pellets, or “prills”, it’s one of the world’s most widely used fertilisers. Ammonium nitrate is a hazardous chemical that has many grades and is used in fertiliser and explosives products because of its unique properties. Ammonium nitrate is an industrial chemical commonly used around the world as an agricultural fertilizer, and in explosives for mining. Find out more about its hazards and safe management. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3. [21] The resulting heat and pressure from decomposition increases the sensitivity to detonation and increases the speed of decomposition. It is normally spread as small pellets and dissolves quickly in moisture, releasing nitrogen into the soil. It is used to make fertilizers and explosives. You may associate ammonium nitrate with explosives; it's commonly used in safety explosives and pyrotechnics as well as fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate is predominantly used in agriculture as a fertiliser. The nitrate form moves readily with soil water to the roots, where it’s immediately available for plant uptake. It is created when … It is also one of the main components in mining explosives. By itself, ammonium nitrate is not regarded as dangerous but under certain conditions, it can become deadly. 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