The autonomous Bougainville elected Joseph Kabui as president in 2005, who served until his death in 2008. The gardens of the New Guinea Highlands are ancient, intensive permacultures, adapted to high population densities, very high rainfalls (as high as 10,000 mm per year (400 in/yr)), earthquakes, hilly land, and occasional frost. ExxonMobil is operator of the joint venture, also comprising PNG company Oil Search, Santos, Kumul Petroleum Holdings (Papua New Guinea's national oil and gas company), JX Nippon Oil and Gas Exploration, the PNG government's Mineral Resources Development Company and Petromin PNG Holdings. In addition to two international airfields, Papua New Guinea has 578 airstrips, most of which are unpaved.[3]. Agriculture, for subsistence and cash crops, provides a livelihood for 85% of the population and continues to provide some 30% of GDP. The Bird’s Head Peninsula, also known as the Doberai Peninsula, sticks out of the northwestern part of New Guinea. In the 18th century, traders brought the sweet potato to New Guinea, where it was adopted and became a staple food. These plate interactions have given rise to rapid mountain growth, intense and frequent seismic events, creation of new crust at spreading centers, powerful volcanic eruptions, and destructive tsunamis. [70] In the Torres Strait it runs close to the mainland of New Guinea, keeping the adjacent North Western Torres Strait Islands (Dauan, Boigu and Saibai) under Australian sovereignty. On 25 February 2018, an earthquake of magnitude 7.5 and depth of 35 kilometres struck the middle of Papua New Guinea. [79] A second major project is based on initial rights held by the French oil and gas major Total S.A. and the U.S. company InterOil Corp. (IOC), which have partly combined their assets after Total agreed in December 2013 to purchase 61.3% of IOC's Antelope and Elk gas field rights, with the plan to develop them starting in 2016, including the construction of a liquefaction plant to allow export of LNG. The country's dual name results from its complex administrative history before independence. There is virtually no freehold title; the few existing freeholds are automatically converted to state lease when they are transferred between vendor and purchaser. As a result, product ranges are limited to sawed timber, veneer, plywood, block board, moulding, poles and posts and wood chips. Washington DC. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the most tectonically dynamic and complex locales in the world. [26][27] In 1901, on Goaribari Island in the Gulf of Papua, missionary Harry Dauncey found 10,000 skulls in the island's long houses, a demonstration of past practices. The first Dutch government posts were established in 1898 and in 1902: Manokwari on the north coast, Fak-Fak in the west and Merauke in the south at the border with British New Guinea. This percentage is about the same amount as that found in the United States or Australia. Advocacy in the courts follows the adversarial pattern of other common-law countries. The Constitution of Papua New Guinea is the supreme law in the country and is an entrenched constitution in which all ordinary statutory enactments are subordinate to its provisions. [53] In September 2020, Minister for Police Bryan Jared Kramer launched a broadside on Facebook against his own police department,[54] which was subsequently reported in the international media. Traders from Southeast Asia had visited New Guinea beginning 5,000 years ago to collect bird-of-paradise plumes.[30]. These original inhabitants first arrived in New Guinea at a time (either side of the Last Glacial Maximum, approx 21,000 years ago) when the island was connected to the Australian continent via a land bridge, forming the landmass of Sahul. Areas with same time currently (UTC +10). [116], Renewable energy sources represent two-thirds of the total electricity supply. New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Niugini; Hiri Motu: Niu Gini; Indonesian: Papua, historically Irian) is the world's second-largest island and, with an area of 785,753 km (303,381 sq mi), the largest island wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania. Ethnologue's 14th edition lists 826 languages of Papua New Guinea and 257 languages of Western New Guinea, total 1073 languages, with 12 languages overlapping. and G.S. Papua New Guinea . [34] A unique feature of New Guinea permaculture is the silviculture of Casuarina oligodon, a tall, sturdy native ironwood tree, suited to use for timber and fuel, with root nodules that fix nitrogen. It is, therefore, hoped to be a symbol for the entire country. This tradition is still present in local customs. [97] Government expenditure health in 2014 accounted for 9.5% of total government spending, with total health expenditure equating to 4.3% of GDP. Find expert advice on the best regions for incredible wildlife and beautiful landscapes. The country, however, has no elements inscribed yet in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, despite having one of the widest array of intangible cultural heritage elements in the world.[108][109]. The Indonesian province of West Papua is home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups.[23]. It can only be inherited according to the custom of the deceased's people. [3], The name Irian was used in the Indonesian language to refer to the island and Indonesian province, as Irian Barat (West Irian) Province and later Irian Jaya Province. [citation needed] The highest peak is Mount Wilhelm at 4,509 metres (14,793 ft). Seashells are no longer the currency of Papua New Guinea, as they were in some regions—sea shells were abolished as currency in 1933. Homosexual acts are prohibited by law in Papua New Guinea. The rugged terrain—including high mountain ranges and valleys, swamps and islands—and high cost of developing infrastructure, combined with other factors (including law and order problems in some centres and the system of customary land title) makes it difficult for outside developers. Customary property—usually land—cannot be devised by will. The German, Dutch and British colonial administrators each attempted to suppress the still-widespread practices of inter-village warfare and headhunting within their respective territories.[42]. We also uncovered many cases of senior officers facilitating the theft of Police land. [113] This includes 500 schools of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Papua New Guinea. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Local-level governments of Papua New Guinea, List of protected areas of Papua New Guinea, Northern New Guinea lowland rain and freshwater swamp forests, Evangelical Lutheran Church of Papua New Guinea, United Church in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, United Church in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, Papua New Guinea national rugby league team, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, "Stable Government, Investment Initiatives, and Economic Growth", "Sign language becomes an official language in PNG", "PAPUA NEW GUINEA 2011 NATIONAL REPORT-NATIONAL STATISTICAL OFFICE", https://www.nso.gov.pg/index.php/document-library?view=download&fileId=65, "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018", "Urban population (% of total population) - Papua New Guinea | Data", "Spiders and frogs identified among 50 new species", World Economic Outlook Database, October 2015, "Constitution of Independent State of Papua New Guinea (consol. The process of forming such a coalition in PNG, where parties do not have much ideology, involves considerable "horse-trading" right up until the last moment. Carjacking, assault (including sexual assaults), bag snatching and robberies are common. When the Portuguese and Spanish explorers arrived in the island via the Spice Islands, they also referred to the island as Papua. In 2000, Irian Jaya was formally renamed "The Province of Papua" and a Law on Special Autonomy was passed in 2001. "Melanesia, the ethnogeographic region that includes New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia, contains some of the most remote and inaccessible populations on earth." ; Goroka — an attractive highland town with pleasant climate and the … In recent years, successive governments have passed legislation preventing such votes sooner than 18 months after a national election and within 12 months of the next election. With the Papua Act 1905, the UK transferred this territory to the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia, which took on its administration. [citation needed] When first flown over by aircraft, numerous settlements with agricultural terraces and stockades were observed. Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world; 848 languages are listed for the country, of which 12 have no known living speakers. With a vibrant and colourful Papua New Guinea culture, more than 600 islands and 800 indigenous languages, Papua New Guinea is made up of 4 regions with 20 provinces. [12] Papua New Guinea is part of the Australasian realm, which also includes Australia, New Zealand, eastern Indonesia, and several Pacific island groups, including the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Papua New Guinea is geographically positioned … Settlement or squatter areas of towns and cities are particularly dangerous. Their social lives combine traditional religion with modern practices, including primary education. Before about 1930, European maps showed the highlands as uninhabited forests. The Land Element, a land force consisting of the Royal Pacific Islands Regiment, a small special forces unit, a battalion of engineers, and three other small units primarily dealing with signals and health, as well as a military academy, is concerned with defence of the nation on land. These peoples had made the (shortened) sea-crossing from the islands of Wallacea and Sundaland (the present Malay Archipelago) by at least 40,000 years ago. The programme resulted from the signing of an agreement in February 2014 between the European Union and the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. In 2011 there was a constitutional crisis between the parliament-elect Prime Minister, Peter O'Neill (voted into office by a large majority of MPs), and Sir Michael Somare, who was deemed by the supreme court to retain office. 17 7694–7698. The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. Arc-continent collision in Papua Guinea: Constraints from fission track thermochronology Kevin C. Hill and Asaf Raza • Australian Geodynamics Cooperative Research Centre, Department of Earth Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne Victoria, Australia Abstract. Elsewhere, it is brides who traditionally pay a dowry. They later used this name only to refer to islands off the north coast of Papua proper, the Schouten Islands or Biak Island. The four other universities which were once colleges were established recently after gaining government recognition. They are to determine which customs are common to the whole country and may be declared also to be part of the underlying law. Papua New Guinea has such a large exclusive economic zone that patrols by the small Pacific-class patrol boats, which are often unserviceable because of underfunding, are ineffective, so the Maritime Element is heavily reliant on satellite imagery for surveillance of its waters. There are approximately 2,000 Muslims in the country. [89] 20,000 people from Australia currently live in Papua New Guinea. A large proportion of the population is illiterate,[112] with women predominating in this area. The eastern half of the island is the major land mass o… Unalienated land is owned under customary title by traditional landowners. In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. Papua New Guinea occupies the eastern half of the large island of New Guinea positioned north of Australia. [103][104] Traditional religions are often animist. Papua New Guinea joined WHO on 29 April 1976 following its independence from Australia on 16 September 1975. According to the CIA World Factbook (2018),[91] Papua New Guinea has the second lowest urban population percentage in the world, with 13.2%, only behind Burundi. Read our insider’s guide on the best places to visit in Papua New Guinea, as recommended by Telegraph Travel. These Austronesian migrants are considered the ancestors of most people in insular Southeast Asia, from Sumatra and Java to Borneo and Sulawesi, as well as coastal new Guinea. Peter O'Neill emerged as Papua New Guinea's prime minister after the July 2012 election, and formed a government with Leo Dion, the former Governor of East New Britain Province, as deputy prime minister. [8] Most of the population of over 7 million people live in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages. . In 2012, the first two (of three) readings were passed to prevent votes of no confidence occurring within the first 30 months. Its mainland on … [2] Its etymology is unclear;[2] one theory states that it derived from Tidore, the language used by the Sultanate of Tidore, which controlled parts of the island's coastal region. It is located in the deforming zone between the obliquely converging Pacific and Australian plates. September 2010, Autonomy isn’t independence; Indonesian democracy stops in Papua, "Conservationists discover more than 1,000 species in New Guinea", "Progress on Southeast Asia's Flora projects", "New Guinea has the world's richest island flora", "Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Biogeographic Units for Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation", "Marine Ecoregions of the World: A Bioregionalization of Coastal and Shelf Areas", Report claims secret genocide in Indonesia – University of Sydney, "Papua New Guinea massacre of women and children highlights poor policing, gun influx", Guns, Germs and Steel: A Short History of Everybody for the last 13,000 Years, Facsimile of material from "The Discovery of New Guinea" by George Collingridge, Scientists hail discovery of hundreds of new species in remote New Guinea, tapa ["masi" (Fiji), "ngatu" (Tonga), "siapo" (Sāmoa), " ʻuha" (Rotuma)], Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research Consortium, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=New_Guinea&oldid=995300393, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Tok Pisin-language text, Articles containing Indonesian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameter, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 08:29. O’Connell, J. F., and J. Allen. New Guinea is an island to the north of the Australian mainland, south of the equator. The initial spark was a fight between ethnic Chinese and indigenous workers at a nickel factory under construction by a Chinese company. In the constitution of Papua New Guinea, section 2(11) (literacy) of its preamble mentions '...all persons and governmental bodies to endeavour to achieve universal literacy in Pisin, Hiri Motu or English' as well as "tok ples" and "ita eda tano gado". Further gas and mineral projects are proposed (including the large Wafi-Golpu copper-gold mine), with extensive exploration ongoing across the country. The first WHO Country Liaison Officer who was appointed in August 1974 was assigned as the first WHO Representative. The unicameral National Parliament has 111 seats, of which 22 are occupied by the governors of the 22 provinces and the National Capital District. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua. Sometimes an important event, such as a legendary battle, is enacted at such a musical festival. [72] Papua New Guinea had a Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 8.84/10, ranking it 17th globally out of 172 countries. It is also a member of APEC and an ACP country, associated with the European Union. … [6] The name Papua came to be associated with this area, and more especially with Halmahera, which was known to the Portuguese by this name during the era of their colonization in this part of the world. Dense rainforests can be found in the lowland and coastal areas as well as very large wetland areas surrounding the Sepik and Fly rivers. Three more Guardian-class patrol boats are under construction in Australia, to replace the old Pacific-class vessels. [3] The name appears to come from the words papo (to unite) and ua (negation), which means "not united" or, "territory that geographically is far away (and thus not united)".[3][4]. The most startling discovery took place on 4 August 1938, when Richard Archbold discovered the Grand Valley of the Baliem River, which had 50,000 yet-undiscovered Stone Age farmers living in orderly villages. Anti-Chinese rioting involving tens of thousands of people broke out in May 2009. Text taken from UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030, 535–555, UNESCO, UNESCO Publishing. Prentice, M.L. In some cultures, to get a bride, a groom must bring a certain number of golden-edged clam shells[107] as a bride price. Serious crime is particularly high in the capital, Port Moresby, and in the cities of Lae and Mt Hagen. Some areas are accessible only on foot or by aeroplane. Provinces[58] are the primary administrative divisions of the country. In contrast to establishing an Australian mandate in former German New Guinea, the League of Nations determined that Papua was an external territory of the Australian Commonwealth; as a matter of law it remained a British possession. Oil palm production has grown steadily over recent years (largely from estates and with extensive outgrower output), with palm oil now the main agricultural export. [38] Sultan Nuku, one of the most famous Tidore sultans who rebelled against Dutch colonization, called himself "Sultan of Tidore and Papua",[39] during his revolt in 1780s. At its gathering in November 2014, the Council re-emphasised the need to focus on sustainable development through science and technology. Lying just south of the equator, 160km north of Australia, Papua New Guinea is part of a great arc of mountains stretching from Asia, through Indonesia and into the South Pacific. The constitution was drafted between 1973 and 1975 and established the country as a Commonwealth realm headed by The Crow… Each province is divided into one or more districts, which in turn are divided into one or more Local-Level Government areas. The constitutional convention, which prepared the draft constitution, and Australia, the outgoing metropolitan power, had thought that Papua New Guinea would not remain a monarchy. [68] The 141° E meridian formed the entire eastern boundary of Dutch New Guinea according to its 1828 annexation proclamation. [99] The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Papua New Guinea was 250. Many of the world's uncontacted indigenous peoples are thought to be hiding in both Papua and West Papua. World Bank. The territories under Australian administration became collectively known as The Territories of Papua and New Guinea (until February 1942). Disputes between mining and forestry companies and landowner groups often devolve on the issue of whether the companies entered into contractual relations for the use of land with the true owners. Many times people refer to the area of papua new guinea and australia as Oceania. It became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1975 with Elizabeth II as its queen. "Was Papua New Guinea an Early Agriculture Pioneer?" The Council decided on the name of West Papua for the territory, along with an emblem, flag, and anthem to complement those of the Netherlands. Irian is the name used in the Biak language and other languages such as Serui, Merauke and Waropen. The highlands, northern and eastern parts of the island became key battlefields in the South West Pacific Theatre of World War II. [45], From 1971, the name Papua New Guinea was used for the Australian territory. The current prime minister is James Marape. New Guinea, Papua New Guinea, -8.95°S / 148.15°E Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5) Last update: 29 Jan 2013 (uncertain reports about ash emissions on 25 March) Mt Lamington volcano is a large andesitic stratovolcano within sight of the provincial capital Popondetta north of the Owen Stanley Range. Western agronomists still do not understand all of the practices, and it has been noted that native gardeners are as, or even more, successful than most scientific farmers in raising certain crops. Under a 2002 amendment, the leader of the party winning the largest number of seats in the election is invited by the governor-general to form the government, if she can muster the necessary majority in parliament. The natives of Papua appealed to the United Nations for oversight and independence. As of 2020 there are over 30,000 members of the Bahá’í Faith in PNG. (eds.). Davis Steven was appointed deputy prime minister. [39] The monarch is represented by the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, currently Bob Dadae. [citation needed] The Lands Act was amended in 2010 along with the Land Group Incorporation Act, intended to improve the management of state land, mechanisms for dispute resolution over land, and to enable customary landowners to be better able to access finance and possible partnerships over portions of their land, if they seek to develop it for urban or rural economic activities. [55] In the post, Kramer accused the Royal PNG Constabulary of widespread corruption, claiming that "Senior officers based in Police Headquarters in Port Moresby were stealing from their own retired officers’ pension funds. Archaeological evidence indicates that humans first arrived in Papua New Guinea around 42,000 to 45,000 years ago. The 2007 general election was the first to be conducted using LPV. Find an accommodation, rent a house in Papua New Guinea and much more. Earthquakes are relatively common, sometimes accompanied by tsunamis. This restriction on votes of no confidence has arguably resulted in greater stability, although perhaps at a cost of reducing the accountability of the executive branch of government. Around 40,000 expatriates, mostly from Australia and China, were living in Papua New Guinea in 1975. The island is so large that it is considered 'nearly a continent' in terms of its biological distinctiveness. Amnesty International has estimated more than 100,000 Papuans, one-sixth of the population, have died as a result of government-sponsored violence against West Papuans. Only a few limited finished products are exported. [116] In 2015, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community observed that, 'while Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Samoa are leading the way with large-scale hydropower projects, there is enormous potential to expand the deployment of other renewable energy options such as solar, wind, geothermal and ocean-based energy sources'. "[29], Little was known in Europe about the island until the 19th century, although Portuguese and Spanish explorers, such as Dom Jorge de Menezes and Yñigo Ortiz de Retez, had encountered it as early as the 16th century. Sweet potato largely supplanted the previous staple, taro, and resulted in a significant increase in population in the highlands. The courts are directed by the Constitution and, latterly, the Underlying Law Act, to take note of the "custom" of traditional communities. Agriculture was independently developed in the New Guinea highlands around 7000 BC, making it one of the few areas in the world where people independently domesticated plants. Hope (2006). There is no specific legislation proclaiming official languages in Papua New Guinea. Question: What continent is New Guinea part of? The shape of New Guinea is often compared to that of a bird-of-paradise (indigenous to the island), and this results in the usual names for the two extremes of the island: the Bird's Head Peninsula in the northwest (Vogelkop in Dutch, Kepala Burung in Indonesian; also known as the Doberai Peninsula), and the Bird's Tail Peninsula in the southeast (also known as the Papuan Peninsula). Following a national outcry, these SABLs have been subject to a Commission of Inquiry, established in mid-2011, for which the report is still awaited for initial presentation to the Prime Minister and Parliament. All the Australasian lands are home to the Antarctic flora, descended from the flora of southern Gondwana, including the coniferous podocarps and Araucaria pines, and the broad-leafed southern beech (Nothofagus). The term Papuan languages refers to an areal grouping, rather than a linguistic one, since so-called Papuan languages comprise hundreds of different languages, most of which are not related.[21]. Freehold title (also known as fee simple) can only be held by Papua New Guinean citizens. [citation needed]. Geologically, the island of New Guinea is a northern extension of the Indo-Australian tectonic plate, forming part of a single land mass which is Australia-New Guinea (also called Sahul or Meganesia). The two founding universities are the University of Papua New Guinea, based in the National Capital District,[115] and the Papua New Guinea University of Technology, based outside of Lae, in Morobe Province. [5] Another possibility, put forward by Sollewijn Gelpke in 1993, is that it comes from the Biak phrase sup i papwa, which means 'the land below [the sunset]', and refers to the islands west of the Bird's Head, as far as Halmahera. Most of these cultural groups have their own language. Papua New Guinea Time (PGT) is 10 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Biogeographically, New Guinea is part of Australasia rather than the Indomalayan realm, although New Guinea's flora has many more affinities with Asia than its fauna, which is overwhelmingly Australian. Prior to the 1970s, archaeologists called the single Pleistocene landmass by the name Australasia,[12] although this word is most often used for a wider region that includes lands, such as New Zealand, which are not on the same continental shelf. The border between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia was confirmed by treaty with Australia before independence in 1974. Research indicates that the highlands were an early and independent center of agriculture, with evidence of irrigation going back at least 10,000 years. The western half of the island contains the highest mountains in Oceania, with its highest point, Puncak Jaya, reaching an elevation of 4,884 m (16,023 ft). Transport in Papua New Guinea is heavily limited by the country's mountainous terrain. In the period from 1998 to 2008, conservationists identified 1,060 new species in New Guinea, including 218 plants, 43 reptiles, 12 mammals, 580 invertebrates, 134 amphibians, 2 birds and 71 fish. [7][8][9] Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both north and west of the central ranges. They are mostly represented by the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Papua New Guinea, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, diverse Pentecostal denominations, the United Church in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, the Evangelical Alliance Papua New Guinea, and the Anglican Church of Papua New Guinea. He commanded loyalty from both Moluccan and Papuan chiefs, especially those of Raja Ampat Islands. 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